Исследовательская работа «Joshua Slocum – sailing alone around the world»

Федеральное государственное казенное общеобразовательное учреждение
«Нахимовское военно-морское училище Министерства обороны Российской Федерации»

«Joshua Slocum – sailing alone around the world»

Исполнитель: Быстров Никита 61 класс
Тьютор: Абрамова Вера Сергеевна преподаватель английского языка

Introduction p.3
Early life p.3
Slocum’s Odyssey p.4
Chased by pirates p.5
Aground p.5
Magellan Straight p.5
Later life p.6
Conclusion p.6
Bibliography p.7
By the late 1800s many professional seamen had completed circumnavigations and proved beyond doubt that the world was not flat, but no one had done it singlehanded. This was Slocum’s great achievement, and over the years hundreds of others were inspired to emulate his feat.
Early life
Captain Joshua Slocum was born on 20 February 1844 in Nova Scotia. He was the fifth of eleven children. His father was a hard disciplinarian and from his early teens, he made several attempts to run away to the sea. At the age of fourteen he became cook on a local fishing schooner and soon afterwards he and a friend shipped out on a droger bound for Dublin. From Dublin, he went to Liverpool becoming an ordinary seaman on the British merchant ship Tangier which was bound for China. As a seaman, he rounded Cape Horn twice, touched at Batavia (now Jakarta), the Moluccas, Manila, Hong Kong, Saigon, Singapore, and San Francisco. While at sea he studied for the Board of Trade Examination and at the age of 18 received his certificate as Second Mate. In San Francisco, he became an American Citizen and after a stint at salmon fishing and fur hunting, he returned to the sea piloting a coastal schooner. His first command in 1869 was the barque Washington which he took across the Pacific from San Francisco to Australia and then onwards to Alaska. In 1871, while in Sidney, he married his first wife, an American named Virginia Walker. They went on to have four children, all born in different countries. In remote Alaska, the Washington ended up dragging her anchor during a gale, ran ashore and was a total loss. However, Slocum managed to save the cargo and crew, bringing them back safely in the ship's open boats. The shipping company was impressed by this feat of leadership and seamanship and gave him command of the Constitution which he sailed to Honolulu and later Mexico. After the Constitution He commanded the Benjamin Aymar in the South Seas. However, when the owner sold the vessel, he became stranded in the Philippines. There he organized native workers to build a 150 ton steamship and in partial payment for the work was given the 90 ton schooner, Pato. Reviving his fortunes, he crossed the North Pacific to British Columbia. During this period, Slocum fulfilled his wish to become a writer by becoming a temporary correspondent for the San Francisco Bee. Crossing to Hawaii, he sold the Pato and bought the Amethyst which he sold in Hong Kong for an interest in the full-rigged ship Northern Light. This was his "best command" and was considered the "finest American sailing vessel afloat" at the time. However after two years he sold his interest and bought the barque Aquidneck in which he sailed to Buenos Aires. While there his wife, Virginia, died at the age of 35. They were quite close and he took the loss hard. The following year, 1886, he married his cousin Henrietta Elliott and the Aquidneck ran between Baltimore and South America. During this time he lived through a cholera epidemic, an outbreak of smallpox (which killed several of his crew), and later a mutiny in which he was forced to shoot two men. A few months later, in 1887, his ship ran aground and broke up in Brazil, marooning him and his family and ruining his fortunes. Unwilling to return to the United States as a castaway and a pauper, he used native help and the wreckage of his ship to build a 35 foot, junk rigged, dory which he named "Liberdade". The next year he, his wife, and children sailed this small, homemade craft across 5,500 miles of open ocean to South Carolina. Slocum wrote his first book "Voyage of the Liberdade" about the trip. In recognition for this feat the Liberdade was placed on view at the Smithsonian Institution. 
Slocum’s odyssey
In 1892 he decided to build his own boat and sail her around the world alone. The result was the 37-foot sloop Spray and one of the greatest sea adventures ever told. Captain Slocum's odyssey began on April 24, 1895. He was 51 years old.
His route took him across the Atlantic to Gibraltar, south along the coast of Brazil and Argentina and through the Strait of Magellan, across the Pacific to Cooktown, Australia, around the Cape of Good Hope, and back up the coast of South America to Fairhaven, Massachusetts. 
Slocum’s sailing experience gave him the confidence to use dead reckoning instead of a chronometer to calculate longitude.  His source of food was often the ocean itself.  Flying fish would soar right onto the deck and make a tasty meal.  In the Pacific, where he had his longest stretch of solitude at sea, he ate food he picked up in port: mostly potatoes, salt cod, biscuits, coffee and tea.
His quest took him through every type of weather and some close calls with other boats. 
Chased by pirates
In August 1895 when Slocum reached the Atlantic his plan was to go westwards round Cape Horn but soon he noticed a pirate ship chasing him. Slocum knew that even his fast Spray wouldn’t be able to escape. Fortunately, when the pirates were ready to shoot, a big wave swamped them and they were dismasted. Although Spray was hit and knocked down by the same wave, she was in better shape. Spray only lost her boom while the pirate’s ship lost all her rigging and had to give up the chase.
In November 1895, Slocum ran aground in Uruguay and had to take a lifeboat to shore in very turbulent water. Ironically, Slocum didn’t know how to swim.  He was tossed overboard and made three unsuccessful, failing attempts to climb the dinghy.  As his life flashed before him, he said an exhausted final prayer and tried once more.  It worked, and he was able to climb on the lifeboat and row to shore.
Magellan Straight
But his greatest challenge captain Slocum faced as he sailed from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean through the Strait of Magellan in March 1896. The Strait of Magellan and Cape Horn were famous for the fiercest winds in the world as well as for Fuegian people who were more dangerous than pirates. It took Slocum two attempts to push his way through the Strait against the storms and one night he made a good use of his carpet tacks when some barefoot fuegians tried to board the ship but jumped from the tack-covered deck directly to the sea. Finally, on April 13, 1896 after two months of fierce winds, fierce natives, Spray was free.
At 1:00am on June 27, 1898, after over three years of seafaring, solitude, and struggle, Slocum sailed into Newport, Rhode Island to complete his 46,000 mile journey.  He arrived one pound heavier than he left and was told by friends that he looked much younger.
Later life
Slocum rapidly became a celebrity as news of each leg was broadcast throughout the western world. However, his feat was somewhat overshadowed by the Spanish American War. Upon returning he wrote a book about his experiences titled: Sailing Alone Around The World. This adventure became a best seller and has been on the reading lists of many schools throughout the century. (It is still in print and is a wonderful and quick read.) 
Proceeds from the book and lectures allowed him to buy a house in Martha's Vineyard. However, he continued to be called by the sea.
Made famous by his solo circumnavigation at the age of 54, Captain Slocum’s life had already demonstrated tenacious individualism, creativity, and strength of character. Exotic ports, vast ocean, dead-reckoning and spotting lighthouses – Captain Slocum’s feat was the culmination of a lifetime of adventure, exploration, and ingenuity.
He last sailed from Boston in exploration in the November 1908, headed for Amazon. Captain Slocum was never to be seen again, and was presumed lost at sea.
Джошуа Слокам Один под парусами вокруг света, 2002г.
Captain Joshua Slocum Sailing alone around the world, 1900

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