Исследовательская работа «The Siege of Sevastopol in Crimean War»

Федеральное государственное казенное общеобразовательное учреждение
«Нахимовское военно-морское училище Министерства обороны Российской Федерации»

«The Siege of Sevastopol in Crimean War»

Исполнитель: Кошман Владимир 62 класс
Тьютор: Абрамова Вера Сергеевна преподаватель английского языка
Introduction p.3
Causes of war p.3
The siege of Sevastopol p.3
Conclusion p.5
Bibliography p.6

Since its founding in 1783, the port city of Sevastopol has played a crucial role in Russian history. It is the home of Russia's Black Sea Fleet and a commercial seaport. For 11 months in 1854-55, the city was besieged by British, French, and other forces during the Crimean War. After a brave defense, the besieged Russians were forced to scuttle the entire fleet and evacuate the ruined city.
Causes of war
The Crimean war started as a result of international conflict over the partition of the Ottoman Empire. In 1853, St. Petersburg began a successful campaign against the Turkish protectorates, Moldavia and Wallachia. Very soon the Ottomans received crucial support from the two powerful Western European states, Britain and France. Neither of these powers wanted Russia to strengthen her positions in the Balkans, or to take control over the Black Sea straits.
So, in September 1854 the allies (Britain and France) landed in Russian Crimea and began a year long siege on the Russian fortress of Sevastopol.
The siege of Sevastopol
On 1 September, the Allied British-French fleet consisting of 89 warships and 300 transports came to Yevpatoria. The non-stop landing operation continued for 6 days. 62 000 men were landed and 134 field guns were unloaded. At the same time, the Russian troops in the Crimea numbered only 33 000 men. The enemy army, being supported by the fleet from the sea, advanced along the coastline for Sevastopol. Prince Menshikov, the Chief Commander of the Russian troops in the Crimea, decided to give battle to the enemy army on the position which he had chosen beforehand, namely nearby the Alma River – between Yevpatoria and Sevastopol. He concentrated some 30 000 Russian soldiers in this place. 
Battle of Alma 
The Battle of the Alma (20 September 1854), which is usually considered the first battle of the Crimean War (1853–1856), took place just south of the River Alma in the Crimea. An Anglo-French force under Jacques Leroy de Saint Arnaud and  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FitzRoy_Somerset,_1st_Baron_Raglan" \o "FitzRoy Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan" FitzRoy Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan defeated General Aleksandr Sergeyevich Menshikov's Russian army, which lost around 6,000 troops.
The fighting began with the allies’ invasion of the Crimea on the 20th of September in 1854. Although the allies were successful in driving the Russians out of the area to the north of Sevastopol, the Russians were able to further fortify their positions within the city itself.
Battle of Balaclava 
Stalking the Russian fortress, the allies’ next attack was at the Balaclava on October, 24th. The battle ended with the most well-known mistakes in military history. It is still disputed how British commander and lord Raglan’s orders got confused at Balaclava. But the result was that the allies’ light cavalry headed straight into the wrong Russian position. 118 of the 620 allied soldiers in the charge were killed.
Battle of Inkerman 
At the battle of Inkerman on November, 5th the 2 sides fought again, this time with heavy Russian losses. The defeat at Inkerman effectively broke the fighting spirit of the Russian army and put 24 of the 50 battalions engaged out-of-action. Inkerman was the last time the Russians attempted to defeat the Allies in the field and the war effectively became the siege of Sevastopol.
Battle of the Chernaya
The Battle of the Chernaya was a battle by the  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chorna_River_(Crimea)" \o "Chorna River (Crimea)" Chernaya River fought during the Crimean War on August 16, 1855. The battle was fought between Russian troops and a coalition of French, Sardinian andOttoman troops. The Chernaya River is on the outskirts of Sevastopol. The battle ended in a Russian retreat and a victory for the French, Sardinians and Turks.
Battle of Malakoff
The Battle of Malakoff was a major battle during the Crimean War, fought between French-British forces against Russia on 8 September 1855 as a part of the Siege of Sevastopol. The French army under General MacMahon successfully stormed the Malakoff redoubt, whereas a simultaneous British attack on the Redan to the south of the Malakoff was repulsed. In one of the war's defining moments, the French  HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zouave" \o "Zouave" zouave   HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Eug%C3%A8ne_Libaut&action=edit&redlink=1" \o "Eugène Libaut (page does not exist)" Eugène libautraised the French flag on the top of the Russian redoubt. The Battle of Malakoff resulted in the fall of Sevastopol on 9 September, bringing the 11-month siege to an end.
Battle of the Great Redan 
The Battle of the Great Redan was a major battle during the Crimean War, fought between British forces against Russia on 18 June and 8 September 1855 as a part of the Siege of Sevastopol. The French army successfully stormed the Malakoff redoubt, whereas a simultaneous British attack on the Great Redan to the south of the Malakoff was repulsed. Contemporary commentators have suggested that, although the Redan became so important to the Victorians, it was probably not vital to the taking of Sebastopol. The fort at Malakhov was much more important and it was in the French sphere of influence. It was when the French stormed it after an eleven-month siege that the final, somewhat unnecessary attack on the Redan was made.
The loss of the Malakoff with its dominant position overlooking Sevastopol and its defences caused the Russians finally to give up the struggle. The French in the bastion were treated to the view of the Russian garrison crossing the bridges to the north side of the harbour leaving the city in ruins to the Allies.
On 11th September 1855 the Russians burnt the remaining ships of the Black Sea Fleet. The siege was effectively over. The war did not last much longer.
Дубровин Н.Ф. Первая оборона Севастополя 1854-1855, 2014г.

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