Федеральное государственное казенное общеобразовательное учреждение
«Нахимовское военно-морское училище Министерства обороны Российской Федерации»
«The Siege of Sevastopol in WWII»
Исполнитель: Русин Алексей 62 класс
Тьютор: Абрамова Вера Сергеевна преподаватель английского языка
The history of Sevastopol p.3
The siege of Sevastopol in WWII p.4
The battle for Sevastopol was one of the key battles of WW2, during one of its darkest moments, when the Germans appeared victorious.
It made a crucial contribution to Hitler’s crushing defeat at Stalingrad, which changed the course of world history. Like many other battles, the Russians fought against overwhelming odds with almost unimaginable heroism, death, destruction and sacrifice. The heroism of that siege is branded into the memories of Russians.
The history of Sevastopol
Sevastopol was founded in June 1783 as a base for a naval squadron under the name Akhtiar HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sevastopol" \l "cite_note-9" (White Cliff), by Rear Admiral Thomas Mackenzie(Foma Fomich Makenzi), a native Scot in Russian service; soon after Russia annexed the Crimean Khanate. Five years earlier, Alexander Suvorov ordered that earthworks be erected along the harbour and Russian troops be placed there. In February 1784, Catherine the Great ordered HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grigory_Potyomkin" \o "Grigory Potyomkin" Grigory Potemkin to build a fortress there and call it Sevastopol. The realisation of the initial building plans fell to Captain Fyodor Ushakov who in 1788 was named commander of the port and of the Black Sea squadron. It became an important naval base and later a commercial seaport. In 1797, under an edict issued by Emperor Paul I, the military stronghold was again renamed to Akhtiar. Finally, on April 29 (May 10), 1826, the Senate returned the city's name to Sevastopol.
One of the most notable events involving the city is the Siege of Sevastopol (1854–55) carried out by the British, French, Sardinian, and HYPERLINK "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Turkey" \o "Ottoman Turkey" Turkishtroops during the Crimean War, which lasted for 11 months. Despite its efforts, the Russian army had to leave its stronghold and evacuate over a pontoon bridge to the north shore of the inlet. The Russians chose to sink their entire fleet to prevent it from falling into the hands of the enemy and at the same time to block the entrance of the Western ships into the inlet. When the enemy troops entered Sevastopol, they were faced with the ruins of a formerly glorious city.
The siege of Sevastopol in WWII
Crimea was of huge strategic significance during World War II. From bases in and around Sevastopol, the Soviet Union could launch air raids against the Romanian oil fields at Ploiesti, which were crucial to the Nazi war machine. In addition, the German armies, advancing rapidly through the Soviet Union in the summers of 1941 and 1942 -- hoped to be able to fight through the Kerch Strait and drive on to capture the Soviet oil fields in the Caucasus. Such a maneuver would also enable them to outflank defenders at the crucial Soviet cities of Rostov-on-Don and Stalingrad from the south. Finally, Hitler had a personal fetish for capturing "trophy cities" such as Leningrad, Stalingrad, and Sevastopol.
In the early days of World War II, the Red Army suffered from often appallingly bad leadership. The Crimean Front, however, was a notable exception. Overall command was held by Vice Admiral Filipp Oktyabrsky, commander of the Black Sea Fleet. Ground forces were commanded by Major General Ivan Petrov. Petrov was commanding Soviet forces in the besieged city of Odesa, which continued to hold out after Kyiv and other key targets in western and central Ukraine had fallen to the Nazi attack. However, in October 1941, the crucial decision was made to evacuate Petrov and his army to Sevastopol and prepare for the defense of Crimea. Petrov immediately began building defensive lines around Sevastopol and across the Perekop Isthmus, the narrow strip connecting Crimea with the Ukrainian mainland.
Although badly out-equipped in most other parts of the front line, the Red Army had crucial advantages in the Crimean campaign. The Germans had almost no naval forces on the Black Sea, and for much of the fighting the Soviet Air Force controlled the skies. Working mostly at night and during stormy weather, Soviet seamen were able to resupply and reinforce Sevastopol from the Soviet base at Novorossiisk. At various times during the campaign, Soviet forces were able to land additional troops on the Kerch Peninsula and draw German forces away from the besieged port.
After five days of desperate, bloody fighting in September 1941, the German 11th Army, commanded by the legendary General Erich von Manstein, fought through the narrow Perekop Isthmus and broke out into Crimea. The Germans tried repeatedly to take Sevastopol by storm in October and November 1941. On December 17, 1941, von Manstein launched a major attack on the city that was repelled at high cost.
Most of the vessels of the Black Sea Fleet were evacuated to Novorossiisk and operated from there during the campaign. A few ships remained in Sevastopol and used their heavy guns to bombard German positions. In December 1941, the Red Army was able to land a force on the Kerch Peninsula and divert the German Army away from the attack on Sevastopol. It took German General von Manstein until May 1942 to eliminate the Soviet force around Kerch -- time that Soviet General Petrov used to bolster the Sevastopol defensive lines against the coming siege.
During the siege of Sevastopol, Soviet forces used all resources available. Black Sea Fleet sailors and marines were pressed into infantry duty. The more than 100,000 civilians in Sevastopol at the time of the siege were also mustered into service, performing duties such as building fortifications and moving supplies from the port to the defense perimeter.
Following weeks of intense air and artillery bombardment, the Soviet forces in Sevastopol began to evacuate the city at the end of June 1942. Petrov and other leading commanders, as well as wounded troops, were evacuated by sea. On July 4, 1942, the remaining forces in the city surrendered and the Germans occupied the battered port. The siege had lasted 248 days. Soviet losses are estimated at about 75,000 men. The Germans claimed 24,000 killed, but this figure does not include the losses among the allied Romanian forces. After the victory, German General von Manstein recommended that his army be sent across the Kerch Strait and into the Caucasus. But Hitler instead promoted him to field marshal and sent him to command the attack on the northern city of Leningrad. The German 11th Army was broken up and most of it sent to the battle of Stalingrad.
The battle of Sevastopol was costly for both sides even by the most conservative of estimates. About 18,000 Soviets were killed and 95,000 were captured; only 25,157 were successfully evacuated. The German 11th Army saw 4,264 killed, 21,626 wounded, and 1,522 missing for a total of over 27,000 casualties. Manstein estimated the German losses at about 24,000. The Romanians suffered 1,597 killed, 6,571 wounded, and 277 missing for a total of 8,454 casualties. Other sources quoted higher casualty numbers, though the counts are likely to be inflated by various intentions.
The city of Sevastopol also suffered dearly, largely to the long artillery campaign. In the city limits, only 5 to 10 buildings were left standing, the rest were reduced to rubbles.
Алексеев С. Оборона Севастополя 1941-1943. Сражение за Кавказ 1942-1944, 2010г.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siege_of_Sevastopol_(1941%E2%80%9342)http://www.secondworldwarhistory.com/battle-of-sevastopol.aspВеликая война. Оборона Севастополя (видеозапись), 2014г.